Topic - Active Earth

Key Skills/Knowledge

  • Name the different layers of the Earth and describe their characteristics.
  • Understand that the world is made up of a series of tectonic plates.
  • Name and explain the three types of plate boundaries.
  • Use lines of longitude and latitude to locate major volcanoes and make links between their location and the proximity to plate boundaries.
  • Explain how a volcano is formed and what happens during a volcanic eruption.
  • Research a famous volcano and create an informative fact file using a range of geographical vocabulary.
  • Use a range of geographical vocabulary to give a first-hand account of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79AD.
  • Explain how and why earthquakes occur.
  • Locate earthquakes on a world map using lines of longitude and latitude.
  • Discuss the reasons why certain items are required in an earthquake survival kit and explain what people should do before, during and after an earthquake in order to stay safe.
  • Identify the main stages in the formation of a tsunami describing the destruction it can cause.
  • Explain how to keep safe in a tsunami.
  • Explain what happened as a result of the Boxing Day Tsunami 2004 in the Indian Ocean taking into consideration the longer term impacts on the region.

Key Vocabulary

  • Earth’s structure:  crust, mantle, outer core, inner core, magma, tectonic plates, plate tectonics, convergent boundaries, divergent boundaries, transform boundaries, Ring of Fire, Pacific Ocean, hotspots
  • Locational vocabulary:, plate boundaries, lines of longitude and latitude, Equator, Arctic Circle, Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn,  Ring of Fire, Krakatoa, Mount St Helens, Mount Tambora, Mauna Loa, Eyjafjallajökull, Mount Pelée, Mount Pinatubo, Pompeii, Mount Vesuvius, Italy, San Andreas Fault, California, Indian Ocean,
  • Features of volcanoes: eruption, magma, lava, ash, gas, composite volcano, shield volcano, active, dormant, extinct, conduit, vent, crater, lava flow, parasitic cone, throat, sill, ash cloud, pyroclastic flow, ash
  • Features of earthquakes: epicentre, focus, seismic waves, seismography, tsunami, landslide, Richter Scale, Earthquake survival kit, Drop, Cover, Hold, aftershocks, subduction zone, receding, primary effect, secondary effects, social, economic and environmental impacts


Topic - States of Matter

Key Skills/Knowledge

All children should be able to:

  • Sort materials into solids, liquids and gases.

  • Explain that heating causes melting, and cooling causes freezing.

  • Identify the melting and freezing point of water.

  • Describe evaporation and condensation using practical examples.

  • Describe the effect of temperature on evaporation referring to their investigation.

  • Identify the stages of the water cycle.

  • Predict what will happen in an investigation.

  • Make observations.

Most children will be able to:

  • Describe the properties of solids, liquids and gases.

  • Explain that melting and freezing are opposite processes that change the state of a material.

  • Identify the melting and freezing point of several different materials.

  • Explain that heating causes evaporation and cooling causes condensation.

  • Explain that evaporation and condensation are opposite processes that change the state of a material.

  • Explain that the higher the temperature, the quicker water evaporates.

  • Explain what happens to water at the different stages of the water cycle.

  • Make observations and conclusions.

  • Be able to answer questions based on their learning.

Some children will be able to:

  • Explain the behaviour of the particles in solids, liquids and gases.

  • Explain how heating and cooling causes materials to melt and freeze.

  • Explain why a material’s melting and freezing point is the same temperature.

  • Explain how heating and cooling can cause materials to evaporate and condense.

  • Explain why a higher temperature will speed up evaporation.

  • Use the water cycle to explain why the water we have on Earth today is the same water that has been here for millions of years.

  • Set up reliable and accurate investigations.

  • Make and explain predictions.

  • Make and record accurate observations.

  • Use scientific language to explain their findings.

  • Be able to ask and answer questions based on their learning using scientific language.

Key Vocabulary

  • solid, liquid, gas
  • particles, state, material
  • properties
  • carbon dioxide
  • state, matter
  • material,
  • weight, mass
  • particles
  • melt, freeze
  • thermometer, temperature
  • condense, evaporate,
  • process
  • water, ice, water vapour
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